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Britannica defines acid dyes as “any bright-colored synthetic organic compound whose molecule contains two groups of atoms—one acidic, such as a carboxylic group, and one colour-producing, such as an azo or nitro group.”
They are known as acid dyes not because they have acidic properties but because they are applied to materials from a dyebath within acidic or neutral conditions.
Acid dyes are generally used for textile dyeing. They are utilised in dyeing natural fibers like wool, silk, jute, etc., synthetic fibres like nylon, and can also be used to dye a blend of these types of fabrics or fibres as well. Acid dyes have many other uses other than textile dyeing as well.
Acid Dyes are classified in different ways. They are usually classified according to their leveling performance, dyeing properties, and acidic power. The types and classes of acid dyes are:
Classification By Levelling Performance:
This class of acid dyes are classified according to their dyeing behaviour, dyeing pH, migration ability, and washing fastness. These dyeing properties are further decided by their molecular weight and the degree of sulphonation. The types are;
Classification By Acidic Power:
Acid dyes have a variety of different uses. They are used in many different industries and sectors for various types of applications.
A few textile applications and uses according to the type of dye:
Within the textile and fashion industry, acid dyes have many other uses. Furthermore, they also have uses and applications in other industries other than the fashion and textile industry. They all are:
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